Table 1
Reported Comparison of Percentage of Failures Within Groups by Course
———————————————————————————-
English Math Chemistry
———————————-

Group A: Percentage of Special Services
students not receiving tutoring
on a regular basis who failed:
20.0%
33.5%
50.0%
Group B: Percentage of Special Services
students receiving tutoring
on a regular basis who failed:
4.2%
14.5%
0.0%

Table 2
Sub-test Categories and Question Number on the TSORA

Sub-test Categories
Question Numbers
Pre-Test
Post-Test
1) Definition of tutoring and tutor responsibilities 5, 8, 10 4, 14, 17
2) Active listening and paraphrasing 4, 13, 16 1, 10, 16
3) Setting goals/planning 6, 15, 18 3, 12, 18
4) Modeling problem-solving 2, 9, 12 6, 8, 15
5) Referral skills 3, 11, 17 5, 9, 11
6) Study skills 1, 7, 14 2, 7, 13

Table 3
List of Experts Participating in Study
———————————————————————————–

Boylan, Hunter
Director, National Center for Developmental Education
Appalachian State University, NC
Carpenter, Kathy
Director of Tutoring Program
University of Nebraska at Kearney, NE
Christ, Frank
Retired Director, Learning Assistance Center-Cal. State, Long Beach
Coordinator, Winter Institute for Learning Assistance Professionals, AZ
(formerly Summer Institute for Learning Assistance Professionals, CA)
Fendley, Clara
Writing Center Coordinator & English Faculty
Scottsdale Community College, MCCD, AZ
Field, Betty
Mathematics instructor
Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction, MCCD, AZ>
Gerkin, David
Interim Director, Learning Assistance Center
Learning Technician, Learning Assistance Center
Paradise Valley Community College, MCCD, AZ
Gier, Tom
President, College Reading and Learning Association
Former Coordinator of International Tutor Certification Program Committee
University of Alaska-Anchorage
Hancock, Karan
Coordinator of International Tutor Certification Program Committee
Affiliate professor, English department
University of Alaska-Anchorage
Hartman, Hope
Director, City of New York Tutoring & Training Cooperative Program
City College of City University of New York
Kerstiens, Gene
Adult Learning Specialist
Andragogy Associates, CA
Kubasch, Cheryl
Executive Assistant in charge of Employee Development & Total Quality Management Training and Development
Paradise Valley Community College, MCCD, AZ
Lara, Ernie
Former Learning Assistance Center Director, Glendale Community College, MCCD, AZ
Estrella Mountain Community College Center, MCCD, AZ
Maxwell, Martha
Founder of Learning Services at Berkeley, the American University,
and the University of Maryland, Retired.
McGrath, Jane
Reading/English faculty (23 years)
Former Director of Learning Assistance Center, SMCC
Paradise Valley Community College, MCCD, AZ
Mosher, Donna
Counselor & Learning Assistance Center Counseling Faculty Liaison
Paradise Valley Community College, MCCD, AZ
Olsen, Marie
Lead Teacher/Tutoring Coordinator
Maricopa Skills Center, MCCD, AZ
Rings, Sally
Reading/English Faculty
Learning Assistance Center Faculty Liaison Coordinator
Paradise Valley Community College, MCCD, AZ
Rolinger, Jack
Director, Learning Center/Special Services
Phoenix College, MCCD, AZ
Sheets, Rick
Director, Learning Assistance Center
Paradise Valley Community College, MCCD, AZ
Stern, Craig
Program Coordinator, Learning Assistance Center
Northern Arizona University, AZ
Zeka, Yvonne
Director, Learning Center
GateWay Community College, MCCD, AZ

Table 4
Agreement Among the Experts on Most Appropriate Response on TSORA

Question # Experts
Selecting
This
Answer
Number
of Experts
Who
Responded
Percent of
Agreement
of Most
Appropriate
1 20 20 100.0%
2 17 21 81.0%
3 19 21 90.5%
4 20 21 95.2%
5 18 21 85.7%
6 20 20 100.0%
7 19 21 90.5%
8 19 21 90.5%
9 20 21 95.2%
10 19 21 90.5%
11 20 21 95.2%
12 18 21 85.7%
13 20 21 95.2%
14 20 21 95.2%
15 20 21 95.2%
16 21 21 100.0%
17 21 21 100.0%
18 21 21 100.0%




Total 352 376 93.6%

 

 

Table 5Values Assigned to TSORA Response Choices
Number
on
Pre-test
(Number
on
Post-Test)
Value
of
Choice
Number
on
Pre-test
(Number
on
Post-Test)
Value
of
Choice
1a ( 7d) .561b ( 7c) .551c ( 7e) .24

1d ( 7b) 2.00

1e ( 7a) .61

2a ( 8a) 1.81

2b ( 8e) .35

2c ( 8c) 1.10

2d ( 8b) .11

2e ( 8d) .61

3a ( 9a) 1.05

3b ( 9e) .61

3c ( 9b) .11

3d ( 9c) .00

3e ( 9d) 1.90

4a (16d) .10

4b (16c) .80

4c (16e) .00

4d (16b) 1.95

4e (16a) .89

5a (17d) 1.14

5b (17c) 1.86

5c (17a) .00

5d (17e) .00

5e (17b) .50

6a (18a) .00

6b (18b) 2.00

6c (18c) .22

6d (18e) .68

6e (18d) .95

7a (13d) .84

7b (13a) .00

7c (13c) 1.05

7d (13b) .33

7e (13e) 1.90

8a (14d) .45

8b (14a) 1.90

8c (14e) .05

8d (14c) .40

8e (14b) .58

9a (15d) .19

9b (15b) .30

9c (15e) .58

9d (15a) 1.95

9e (15c) 1.15

10a ( 4e) 1.9010b ( 4a) 1.0010c ( 4c) .10

10d ( 4b) .42

10e ( 4d) .28

11a ( 5c) 1.95

11b ( 5d) .00

11c ( 5a) .94

11d ( 5e) .00

11e ( 5b) 1.05

12a ( 6d) .05

12b ( 6a) .00

12c ( 6e) 1.86

12d ( 6c) 1.05

12e ( 6b) .63

13a ( 1e) .56

13b ( 1b) .58

13c ( 1c) .65

13d ( 1d) 1.95

13e ( 1a) .00

14a ( 2c) .06

14b ( 2b) 1.06

14c ( 2e) 1.95

14d ( 2a) .90

14e ( 2d) .05

15a ( 3d) .05

15b ( 3e) .60

15c ( 3b) .68

15d ( 3a) 1.95

15e ( 3c) .80

16a (10c) .20

16b (10e) .52

16c (10a) .89

16d (10b) .05

16e (10d) 2.00

17a (11c) .35

17b (11d) 2.00

17c (11a) .47

17d (11b) .35

17e (11e) .44

18a (12b) .10

18b (12a) 2.00

18c (12c) .32

18d (12d) .81

18e (12e) .50

 

Table 6

Summary of Experts’ Responses to Most Appropriate Actions

in Tutoring Situations (see Appendix J for complete listing of comments)

———————————————————————————-

1) Listen actively to the student
– show empathy and interest in what she is saying
– support student
– build rapport
– lower anxiety
– do not interrupt nor interject own discussions
2) Help student clarify problem and terms she has used (e.g., not doing well, feeling frustrated, needs a better job)
– rephrase and reiterate
– try to determine student’s perception of cause and scope of problem
– help student identify needs and prioritize them
– help student identify the most critical need
3) Provide student with information about appropriate resources
– e.g., counseling, workshops, support groups, classes, tutoring
4) Have student determine need for remainder of session
– needs to continue venting frustrations, not ready for tutoring
– develop plan of action for most critical need
– use remainder of session to begin working on identified course content or study skills
– help student with an appropriate referral for her, i.e., walk over with her to make an appointment with a counselor–introduce her to the counselor if possible
5) Reassure student
– reassure her about her ability
– reassure her about your desire to help her reach her goal
– help her set up a short term goal to complete before her next tutoring appointment with you
– set up next appointment

In general, the appropriate actions are the actions taken by the tutor that focus the session on the student, her perceptions, and her needs.

Table 7

Summary of Experts’ Responses to Most Inappropriate Actions by Tutors

(see Appendix J for complete listing of comments)

———————————————————————————-

Blaming someone or making excuses

e.g., “the problem is ….” (your instructor, the system, your spouse, your parents, your boss, etc.)

Tutor setting themselves up as the “savior of the students,”

saving them from the big, bad … (instructor, system, parents, spouse, etc.)

Tutor telling student what to do or feel, or

interjecting stories or points on how to “fix” the situation

Dismissing the student or her feelings

Putting the student down accidentally or intentionally

Telling the student to try harder or to work harder

Basically, the inappropriate actions are the actions in which:

– the tutor becomes the focal point rather than the student and her needs
– the tutor is not actively listening
– the tutor is making decisions
– the student becomes dependent on the tutor

T08_nmbr_n_coll

T09_gender

T10_GPA

T11_edT12_yr_ed

T13_ttr_ages

T12_yr_ed

T15_Normality_Sample

T16_Variance_Training

T17_Variance_exp

T18_Corr_pre_to_post

T19_Trnng_College

T20_Anlys_Groups_by_trnng

T21_Ttest_grps1n2_TSORA

T22_Ttst-grps1n3_TSORA

T23_Ttest_grps2n3_TSORA

T24_Trnng_by_coll_by_sbtpc

T25_Means_by_trnng

T26_ANCOVA_def_ttrg

T27_ANCOVA_actvlistng

T28_ANCOVA_sttnggoals

T29_ANCOVA_Prblmslvng

T30_ANCOVA_Rfrrl

T31_ANCOVA_Stdysklls

T32_Anlys_TSORA_grps_Exp

T33a_Anlys_ExpnTrngonTSORA

T33b_Anlys_ExpntrnngonTSORA

T34_Means_by_Exp

T35_ANCOVA-defttng_by-Exp

T36_ANCOVA_actvelist_by_Exp

T37_ANCOVA_sttnggoals_by_Exp.JP

T38_ANCOVA_Prblmslvng

T39_ANCOVA_rffrl-by_Exp

T40_ANCOVA_stdysklls_by_Exp

T41_Grdlvl_by_dgr

T42_Mltpl_Regr

T43_MR_atStp17

T44_MR_at_stp18

T45_MRatStp_28

Table 46

R-OTHER: Points and “Other” Reasons for Becoming a Tutor

————————————————————————————

Points

Assigned Description of “Other” choice as a reason (from pre-test)

————————————————————————————

10    Wanted job on campus, near home

10    Like to use ability of native language

15    Supplement my English major

20    Opportunity to interact with peoples of all cultures and ethnicity

20    Asked by ASL teacher to tutor

20    Convenient to tutor after class

25    I refuse to invest so much time into learning something then throw it away

30    Wanted to return to work force

40    Enjoy the learning-teaching experience

50    Teacher recommendation

50    Wanted to work with adults

50    Needed job change for health reasons

Table 47

Tutors with Highest Ten Scores on TSORA: Answers to TSFRA

T47_a
T47_b
T47_c

Table 48

Tutors with Lowest Ten Scores on TSORA: Answers to TSFRA

T48_a
T48_b

Table 49

Summary of Experts’ Responses to Most Appropriate Actions in Tutoring Situations

(see Appendix J for complete listing of comments)

1) Listen actively to the student

– show empathy and interest in what she is saying
– support student
– build rapport
– lower anxiety
– do not interrupt nor interject own discussions

2) Help student clarify problem and terms she has used (i.e., not doing well, feeling frustrated, needs a better job)

– rephrase and reiterate
– try to determine student’s perception of cause and scope of problem
– help student identify needs and prioritize them
– help student identify the most critical need

3) Provide student with information about appropriate resources available

– i.e., counseling, workshops, support groups, classes, tutoring

4) Have student determine need for remainder of session

– needs to continue venting frustrations, not ready for tutoring
– develop plan of action for most critical need
– use remainder of session to begin working on identified course content or study skills
– help student with an appropriate referral for her, i.e., walk over with her to make an appointment with a counselor–introduce her to the counselor if possible

5) Reassure student

– reassure her about her ability
– reassure her about your desire to help her reach her goal
– help her set up a short term goal to complete before her next tutoring appointment with you
– set up next appointment

In general, the appropriate actions are the actions taken by the tutor that focus the session on the student, her perceptions, and her needs.

Table 50

Summary of Experts’ Responses to Most Inappropriate Actions in Tutoring Situations

(see Appendix J for complete listing of comments)

Blaming someone or making excuses

e.g., “the problem is ….” (your instructor, the system, your spouse, your
parents, your boss, etc.)

Tutor setting themselves up as the “savior of the students,” saving them from the big, bad … (instructor, system, parents, spouse, etc.)

Tutor telling student what to do or feel, or interjecting stories or points on how to “fix” the situation

Dismissing the student or her feelings

Putting the student down accidentally or intentionally

Telling the student to try harder or to work harder

Basically, the inappropriate actions are the actions in which:

– the tutor becomes the focal point rather than the student and her needs
– the tutor is not actively listening
– the tutor is making decisions
– the student becomes dependent on the tutor

 

T51_R_Help
T51_R_Dollar
T51_R_UPDATE
T51_R_ED
T51_R_GIVE
T51_R_Hours
T51_R_Other

 

T52_P_ED

T52_P_Give

T52_P_Hours

T52_P_Help

T52_P_Dollar

T52_P_Update

T52_P_Other

 

T53_crsewk

T54_wk_exp

T55_reg_plot

 Next: LIST OF FIGURES

Page last updated on December 1st, 2013